Arms of the Kingdom of An Tir

The Heralds' Page

Newsletter of the College of Heralds of An Tir
Volume 3, Number 2 ~ July 30, 2004

Long live King Thorin and Queen Dagmaer!

Badge of the SCA College of Heralds

Table of Contents:

Arms of Teceangl Ounce

A note from the editor

So, what do you want to see in The Heralds' Page? More about field? Court? Reports? Cartoons? Articles on what? I get some feedback, but really, not enough. I flat refuse to believe that I'm so perfect an editor the Heralds' Page meets everyone's needs and expectations. But I hear little from the readership, although I know full well that with the web archive there are readers from all over the SCA, not just An Tir.

Anyone can offer suggestions and anyone can contribute. I've received some lovely articles from a gentle in Atlantia who had published them originally in a local newsletter and has graciously permitted republishing here. Have you written heraldic articles for your branch newsletter? Reprinting them here will allow other heralds to share their issue of the Heralds' Page, or direct clients to the online archive, so basic how-to heraldry for the non-herald articles have as much place here as do the ponderous treatises on conflict and style I tend to churn out.

This is a forum, your forum. How may we serve you?

Teceangl Bach
Ounce Herald
Heralds' Page editor

Symbols and Mottoes: The Renaissance Impresa

Ursula Georges, alias Ursula Whitcher

What is an impresa?


The impresa is a late medieval and Renaissance art form. "Impresa" is an Italian word which means "device"; but though imprese can be superficially similar to heraldic devices, there are several important differences.

What exactly is an impresa? In 1605, William Camden gave this definition:

An imprese, as the Italians call it, is a device in picture with his Motte, or Word, born by noble or learned personages, to notifie some particular conceit of their owne . . . . As for example: Wheras Cosimi Medici Duke of Florence had in the ascendent at his nativitie the signe Capricorne, under which also Augustus and Charles the fifth, two great and good Princes were borne: he used the celestial signe Capricorne, with this Motte; FIDEM FATI FORTUNA SEQUEMUR, for his Imprese, particularly concerning his good hope to prove like unto them . . . .

There is required in an Imprese (that we may reduce them to few heades) a correspondence of the picture, which is as the body, and the Motte, which as the soul giveth it life. That is, the body must be of fair representation, and the word in some different language, wittie, short, and answerable thereunto neither too obscure nor too plaine, and most commended, when it is an Hemistich, or parcell of a verse.

In other words, an impresa is a combination of a picture (body) and motto (soul). It's used for individual self-expression, the picture should be fair, and the motto should be witty and in a foreign language.

The individual nature of an impresa is particularly important. One person might use many different imprese to express different ideas and moods, or to commemorate different occasions.

How imprese were used

Imprese first appeared in the French and Burgundian courts in the late fourteenth century. They rapidly became popular among European nobility: for a time, displays of imprese seemed to outnumber displays of heraldry. Imprese were embroidered on clothing, displayed at tournaments, painted in portraits, described in literature, and even carved into wooden ceilings. A discussion of some of the most common uses follows.


Imprese were an important part of the lavish pageantry of late medieval and Renaissance tournaments. Special shields were carved and painted with the imprese pictures, and knights often dressed themselves and their entourages to match an impresa's theme. From the time of Queen Elizabeth's reign onwards, a participant in an English tournament was required to compose an impresa. Before the tournament, the knight's page presented the impresa to the Queen (or later to King James). The impresa was usually accompanied by an explanatory song or poem.

One fifteenth-century Flemish impresa shield showed a man standing between a Grim Reaper-like figure and a maiden. The motto was "Vous ou la mort," or "You or Death."

A pageant shield by Antonio Pollaiuolo from the 1470s shows the mythical athlete Milos of Croton. The athlete's body is molded in gesso and then gilded. A motto is painted around the edge of the shield.

Inigo Jones designed the settings for Prince Henry's Barriers at Whitehall in 1610. One of Jones' costume designs, which may be for this event, shows knight dressed à l'antique and carrying an impresa shield. The tiny shield is obviously designed for display, not for combat.


Knights often commemorated their participation in tournaments by commissioning portraits. Such portraits often included imprese; the impresa picture might be incorporated in the sitter's pose, or inset as its own design.

One such painting is a miniature by Nicholas Hilliard which shows George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, in tournament armour. Behind him is a stormy sky. The motto "Fulmen aquasque fero," "I bear lightning and waters," which is painted along the rim of the miniature.

A full-length portrait of Sir Edward Hoby, painted by an unknown artist in 1583, includes insets of both his arms and an impresa. In the impresa, a lady stands before a castle; in the foreground is a pile of cast-aside armour. The lady holds a twisting scroll with the motto "Reconduntur non retunduntur," "Laid aside, not blunted."

Impresa portraits weren't limited to knights; one portrait of Queen Elizabeth shows her holding a rainbow. The motto "Non sine sole iris," "No rainbow without the sun," is inscribed above the rainbow.


Embroidered imprese appeared on bedcovers, clothing, tapestries, and more.

Mary Queen of Scots embroidered some particularly memorable imprese, which, as well as being beautiful, expressed her political goals. One showed a tortoise climbing a crowned palm tree, with the motto "Dat Gloria Vires," or "Glory Gives Strength." The tortoise represented her ambitious husband Darnell.

Published collections

Books about imprese, such as Paolo Giovio's Dialogo dell'Imprese Militari et Amorose, first published in Rome in 1555, fed the art form's popularity and encouraged its spread.

Imprese appeared in other sorts of books as well. One Elizabethan book about tournaments includes a drawing of jousters in which the men's imprese appear above their horses. Most of the imprese in the manuscript are taken from Giovio's book. Imprese also appeared in emblem books. (Emblems are similar to imprese, but discuss general moral truths, and do not belong to a particular person. Henry Peacham's book Minerva Britannica, published in 1612, included a woodcut and poem based on one of the Earl of Essex's imprese, which may have been used in a tournament in 1586 or 1590.

How can I make my own?

A Renaissance set of rules

In the illustrated edition of his Dialogo dell'imprese, published in 1559, Paolo Giovio set forth the following six rules for an impresa. (I follow Alan Young's translation.)

  1. There should be a proper proportion between soul and body [motto and picture].
  2. The impresa should be neither so obscure that the Sibyl must interpret it, nor so obvious that every plebeian can understand it.
  3. It should have a beautiful appearance, making use of stars, the sun, the moon, fire, water, green trees, mechanical instruments, strange animals, and fantastic birds.
  4. It should contain no human form.
  5. It should have a motto, which is the soul of the body, and should be expressed in a language other than the native language of the bearer, so that the meaning may be more obscure.
  6. The motto should be brief, but not so much that it creates uncertainty. Two or three words may be enough, unless they are in the form of verse.

These rules weren't always followed -- several of the imprese mentioned above contain human figures, for instance, and the motto wasn't always in a foreign language -- but they're a good start for your invention!

Other ways to create a motto

Composing an impresa could be intellectually taxing, and not everybody who wanted or needed to display one felt up to the work. Here are some authentic ways to choose mottoes and find design ideas without a vast classical education.

Hire a poet.

One of the simplest ways to find a good impresa was to pay someone else to do it.

The writer of this article is quite willing to follow in such illustrious footsteps.

Choose one from a published list.

Alan Young's book The English Tournament Imprese contains an exhaustive list of tournament mottoes from Tudor and Jacobean England. Emblem books provide a convenient source: the mottoes used in Renaissance emblems were often similar to (or borrowed from) imprese mottoes, and collections such as Alciato's Book of Emblems may be found online.

Borrow from the classics.

Imprese often quoted famous texts such as the Bible and the works of the Latin writers Ovid and Vergil. An impresa might allude to a particular story, or create a complicated joke by leaving out certain words.

Online sources such as the Perseus Project include both Latin texts and English translations; by comparing the two versions, even someone with little knowledge of Latin could choose an appropriate motto from Vergil, Ovid, or the Vulgate.

Selected Imprese Mottoes

The following list of sample mottoes is taken from Alan Young's extensive collection, The English Tournament Imprese.

Bibliography and Suggested Sources

General Imprese Information

Other Motto Sources


The arms of Iago ab Adam

How To Eat Ermine

by Iago ab Adam, OL, JdL

From 'Two Anglo-Norman Culinary Collections Edited from British Library Manuscripts Additional 32085 and Royal 12.C.xii' Speculum 61/4 (1986) pp. 859-882, by Constance B. Hieatt and Robin F. Jones.

Ermynee. Serra fet blanc e bien savoree de bon poudre de gyngyvre, e de quibebes e de clous, e cele viaunde deit estre partie ou vert desirree.

Vert desirree. Let d'alemaundes, flur de rys, braoun de chapoun, vyn vermail, sucre, percil; le colour serra vert.


Ermynee (spiced white pottage). The dish should be white and well flavored with good ground ginger, and with cubebs and cloves, and should be combined (in strips of alternating color) with "vert desirree."

(Editors Note: The ingredients for the dish are not given fully, but probably resembled those of "Vert desir(r)ee," with which it was to be served.)

Vert Desirree (Green Syrian food). Almond milk, rice flour, capon meat. Red wine, sugar, parsley; the colour should be green; (the ingredients are to be boiled in a clean pot and then put (to cool and presumably set) in a dust-free place, in the vessel in which they are cooked: pomegranate (seeds) set on top.) (cooking instructions from the recipe previous in the collection- 'Blanc desirree')

An Tir Internal Letter for July, AS XXXIX / 2004 CE

Lady Marya Kargashina
July 30, 2004
Send thy comments here:
Jessica Smith-Carlock
5114 SE Holgate
Portland, OR 97206

Commentary on this Letter will be due September 10th, 2004.
(Send comments to Lions Blood Herald, information at top of this page)

The August Lions Blood meeting will be held on Sunday, August 15th, 1pm, at the home of Christopher Queue Forchee: 7757 40th Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98115. The house is in the Wedgwood area, East of Ravenna, North of UW.

By Bus: Bus route 71 stops at the end of my driveway, tell the driver you want to get off at 80th St. Bus route 65 stops on NE 80th St & 35th Ave NE, walk 5 blocks east on 80th.

The curb in front of my house, and the space directly across the street from it is a bus stop. Don't park there, even though the paint is faded. Easiest parking is on NE 80th St., on the side of the house.

From the South I-5 *Express Lanes*: Take the Lake City Way exit (it's a left-ramp off the freeway). Get into the Right lane of the ramp as soon as possible after exiting the freeway. Turn Right at the first light (NE 80th St). Note: NE 80th does not go through to my house, there's stuff in the way, so... Turn Right at the first 4-way stop (20th Ave NE.). Turn Left at the first light (NE 75th St). Follow the "From NE 75th St" directions, below.

From the South via I-5 (incl. 520 & 90): Take I-5 to exit 171 (522, Bothell). Stay to the right hand of the ramp. Just as the ramp goes around a bend there will be an exit to your Right. Take it. Merge into 73rd heading East (only option). Stop at the stop, stay on 73rd. Turn Left at the next stop sign, onto 12th, heading North again. Turn Right at the light, onto NE 75th St., heading East again. Follow the "From NE 75th St" directions, below.

From the North via I-5: Take the exit for 80th St. & 85th St. Follow the signs for 80th St. East Bound, turning left at the end of the ramp. You will cross over I-5. Continue on 80th St. for a while. Turn Right (south) @ the 4-way stop on 20th Turn Left (east) @ the first light (NE 75th St.). Follow the "From NE 75th St" directions, below.

From NE 75th St: Turn Left at the 4-way stop (onto 40th Ave NE). Go two short "blocks." The house will be on your Left just as the school yard ends, on the corner with NE 80th St. If you completely pass the school yard, or cross over 80th St., you've gone too far.

Arms of Marya Lions Blood

Greetings from Lions Blood.

A reminder from the Administrative Handbook, section IV.C.2.:

Documentation - Documenting evidence must be included for any non-standard name or armorial items or practices. Whenever possible, such documentation should include photocopies of appropriate sources and references to specific pages in source material.

This includes order names and household names, not just personal names. The commenters will help support submissions, but the submitter is ultimately responsible for providing documentation. As submitters are rarely heralds, what should occur is that the submitter's herald provides needed documentation. The An Tir Heralds email list is a great resource for locating documentation, as are the other online heraldry lists. Æstel Herald will provide needed documentation, and many other heralds in this kingdom are willing to help submitters or heralds. Black Lion and Lions Blood both will be glad to help heralds find the assistance they need for name documentation. Returns for lack of documentation are largely preventable; please help in any way you can.


Various missives from the cover letter to the March 2004 LoAR:

From Wreath: A Cautionary Word Regarding "Conflict Tables"

It has come to our attention that there is a growing trend in the College to create "conflict tables". These tables summarize precedent on some class of armorial elements, such as crosses, flowers, or lines of division. The tables use a simple format that allows one to (for example) compare two types of crosses and look up whether they have no difference, a single CD ("significant" difference), or X.2 difference ("substantial" difference.) The tables also allow the user to identify the LoARs in which the rulings referenced by the table were made.

We understand the desire to provide a quick and simple summary of conflict issues, and we thank the compilers of these tables for their hard work. However, we caution the College that these tables may inadvertently contribute to an inaccurate view of the heraldic issues. We have reached this conclusion by investigating the source of some assertions made in College of Arms commentary, which turned out to be based on overgeneralizations from conflict tables, rather than being based on the combination of the Rules for Submission, examples of period armory, and precedents (past rulings in LoARs). We are happy to see that the conflict tables of which we are aware do reference an LoAR for each assertion made in the table. We suggest that people make use of the conflict tables, but that they do not make up their minds about conflict issues until they have read the full LoAR ruling referenced by the table, and until they have read the LoAR rulings referenced in closely related areas of the table.

In many cases, if there is not a clear general ruling pertaining to some class of armorial elements, it is because the issues pertaining to that class of elements are not easily summarized. RfS X, "Conflicting Armory", explains how armorial conflict in the SCA is based on an attempt to emulate period armorial practices:

A piece of armory may not be too similar to other pieces of armory, as is required by General Principle 3a of these rules. Period armory frequently distinguished between immediate relatives, like a father and his son, by making a single change to the arms in a process called "cadency". The changes made in such circumstances can be considered the smallest change that period heralds would recognize. This section defines ways in which submitted armory must be changed to be sufficiently different from protected armory.

It is just as easy - or as difficult - to create a table summarizing the grammar of a language, as it is to create a table summarizing period armorial practices for difference. In both natural language and in armory, there are many generally applicable rules, but also a large number of specific exceptions.

We would like to address one specific misconception which, according to some commenters, derived from an overgeneralization of a conflict table. One conflict table concerning crosses had a category of "cross throughout" (with sub-categories for the particular types of cross throughout, such as equal-armed Celtic quarter-pierced.) As a result of the cursory scan of this category, which generally gave a CD between the "throughout" cross and the cross with which it was compared, more than one College of Arms member incorrectly generalized that all crosses throughout were a CD from all crosses which were not throughout. The precedents listed in the LoAR table explicitly denied that generalization, but one had to look at the cited precedents to see that information. One example of a precedent referenced by the conflict table that denied this generalization:

[A Celtic cross vs. a Celtic cross equal-armed, quarterly pierced and throughout] There is no heraldic difference for the charge being throughout, or not. However, there's a CD ... for the quarter-piercing, which is visually equivalent to adding a tertiary delf. (Toirrdelbach Ua Mel Doraid, October, 1992, pg. 16)

A relatively recent LoAR also addressed this issue. Clarifying comments have been inserted into the quote in square brackets:

While we give a CD for a standard cross throughout [the ordinary] versus a cross couped, for most crosses (such as crosses fleury) we do not give such difference for couped [not-throughout] versus throughout. (LoAR February 2002).

From Wreath: Raw Numbers

Granted, Laurel performs a different sort of service for our clients than Lord Lyon King of Arms of Scotland performs for his clients. Our College of Arms is organized differently from (and is much larger than) Lyon's Court. And we don't have to do any genealogy. But Electrum suggested that the following information about the Lyon Office workload might be of interest to our College, and we concur. This information is from an article by Anthony Maxwell in the April 2004 edition (number 24) of Tak Tent, the newsletter of the Heraldry Society of Scotland:

In what is possibly a first, the Court of the Lord Lyon has issued some figures giving the number of grants and matriculations made in 2003. There were 78 new grants of arms, of which 55 were to individuals, 14 to corporate bodies, and 9 to local authorities. There were, in addition, 43 matriculations from existing grants. This is a total of 121 new arms in the year. I understand this is not the highest number in a single year but well up on an average year and I am informed that 2004 is set to be something of a bumper year. The number of new arms for this year is likely [to] be over 130 and possibly as many as 150 which may be somewhere very close to the maximum capacity of the Court as it is currently organized. The level of service from the Court is still excellent but with heraldry becoming ever more popular and the increasing number of petitions arriving on Lyon Clerk's desk, one wonders what will be the Court's next move to ensure the smooth flow of arms from this ancient and most respected Office.

By contrast, while we do not have figures for Laurel's workload in 2003, we did publish the figures for 2002 for the Laurel office in the Cover Letter for the February 2003 Letter of Intent: 3797 items, with items defined as "acceptances, returns, transfers, and administrative items (reblazons, protected items, and such), whether paid or unpaid... [omitting] pended items." Siren also observes, regarding Lyon's workload, that "We do more than that at Pennsic. And I'm only counting devices."

From Wreath: Carpe Ovum Diabolicum

It's been an interesting almost-three years. Thanks to the College of Arms and to the heraldic submitters of the SCA for raising so many intriguing questions concerning period heraldry. Thanks to François and the SCA Board of Directors for providing me with the incentive/mandate to deeply consider these questions, rather than spending my time in somewhat less dry pursuits.

To Laurel, to Pelican, and to the Atlas on whose shoulders all the sovereigns rested, Laurel Clerk: it was great working with you guys! Likewise to the stalwart Wreath staff, without whose labors, support, and last-minute research, the armory side of the submissions process would have been sorely diminished. Heartfelt thanks to David Electrum, Juliana Siren, Christopher Queue Forchée, Francesca Æstel, Elisabeth Pomegranate, Rafaella Blue Anchor, Teceangl Ounce, Richenda Boar, Ciaran Goutte de Sang, Bruce Oak Leaf, Sebastian Sterne, and Rouland Carre.

And lastly, thanks to the chickens who provided the three dozen eggs per month, which (after appropriate deviling) kept the Wreath meetings going, and engendered the unofficial Wreath team motto that heads this section of the LoAR. Yes, we know that stuffed eggs mixed with hot savory spices (like mustard) probably don't predate the end of our period (even though there are precursors at least as early as Apicius) and that the word "deviled" for this sort of cooking treatment for eggs or meats doesn't date until well past period. And we may not have formed the Latin correctly. We didn't care. After all, at least in the organization of this Laurel's tenure, "that's a Pelican problem."

From Laurel: Thank You

It takes a lot of work by hundreds of people at every level to support heraldry throughout the Known World. I wish to say: to the dedicated field heralds, who spend hours in the hot sun or the cold wet wind, calling the pairings with pomp and dignity; to the court herald, whose vocal skills make what is happening "in the presence" known to even the back row; to the consulting heralds, giving countless hours of their own time helping to explain the subtle workings of onamastics or armorial design; to the heralds working on submissions, spending long evenings with word processors, forms, and markers to get the names and armory of our friends into and through the registration process; to the principal heralds, who have the responsibility of making sure that all of the various duties are accomplished as well as being counselors, mentors, and advisors; and to the College of Arms, the hours of research, conflict checking and commentary given to aid in the registration of names and armory, I give you honour and my sincere and heartfelt thanks. It has been my honour to be at the head of such a host. Your passion, enthusiasm and dedication is awe-inspiring. Thank you for your efforts and time.

The everyday operation of the Laurel office is very much a team effort. Without the help and advice from the Laurel staff, the amount of work could be overwhelming. Many of the support tasks are quietly and efficiently managed by people who do the work not for recognition but because it needs doing. I bring them to your attention in the hopes that you will help me thank them. The Laurel Web page would not have the fullness of information it does without the efforts of Jaelle of Armida and her minions. The printing and mailing of the LoAR, often with impossibly short deadlines, has been handled by Symond Bayard le Gris. Updating the database for the Ordinary and Armorial and the creation of the updates is a never ending and thankless task so ably accomplished by Herveus d'Ormonde. The challenging task of distilling the precedent-setting rulings from our decisions into a useful and informative document is being accomplished with skill and finesse by Jeanne Marie Lacroix. There are many people that work so hard to keep this office running that I can only beg your pardon and forgiveness if I have not specifically included you in this list.

And finally, there are three people without whom this tenure would not have been possible. These three have been my support, my deputies, my teachers, and my friends. Zenobia Naphtali as Wreath has put forth a fantastic effort. Besides the sheer volume of submissions to rule and write decisions on, she often put up with my heretical ideas and then with an open mind discussed the whys and hows until a workable solution was found (or not). I found her wisdom and experience an invaluable resource. Mari Elspeth nic Bryan as Pelican has set a standard for the explanation of decisions that will be hard to maintain. It takes time to write such complete discussions and I hope that the College and the submitters appreciate the value. I admire her passion for making sure that the person submitting the name was treated fairly and consistently by the rules. Daniel de Lincoln as our Clerk has been a tremendous resource and support. Daniel spent many many hours with the programs and applications used in the processing the LoIs and the LoARs. Without his constant vigilance we might have violated the "secret laurel style guide", resulting in mayhem in the LoAR.

In the July 1981 cover letter Wilhelm Laurel added the rank of Herald Extraordinary, saying the following.

This rank is reserved for those heralds who have greatly served the College of Heralds and/or the College of Arms and have achieved the highest level of competence in heraldry.

and he further stated

The rank of Herald Extraordinary shall be permanent so long as the holder continues to remain active in SCA heraldry. ... Each Herald Extraordinary shall have a title that is his/her own personal title that s/he shall hold so long as s/he remains active. If s/he should retire from the SCA, the title shall retire with her/him and shall not be used again by anyone else.

The awarding of rank and a personal heraldic title is for much more than simply completing a term in office. Daniel, Mari, and Zenobia have each actively served at every level of heraldry, giving much of themselves for many years. The knowledge that they have and share shows them to have the highest level of competence. In recognition of years of service, I hereby award unto Mari, Zenobia, and Daniel, the rank of Herald Extraordinary. Each may at her or his choice submit a personal heraldic title to be registered for their use. These are not "retirement" titles but a reward for the many years of service. I will note that each has already committed to continue working either within the College of Arms or in the local kingdoms' Colleges of Heralds.

It is with equal measures of sadness and relief that I turn the office of Laurel Sovereign of Arms over to Shauna. The years have been filled with challenges, learning and a lot of work. But, I have worked with some of the most intelligent and dedicated people in the Society. It has been an incredible experience. And I will miss it.

An Tir results from the March 2004 LoAR (see the LoAR for full text):

(typos might exist - only the LoAR itself is definitive - due to the plethora of explanations, full LoAR text has been included)




The June meeting was held on June 13. In attendance were Marya Lions Blood, Teceangl Ounce, and Ciaran Lowenmahne.

The following have been sent to Laurel on the June 2004 An Tir Letter of Intent:

Alis inghean Ruaidhri Name

Cerdic Wlfraven Name

Chuluun the Scribe Name and Device
Gules, two sagittary addorsed Or.
Fergus Sturrock Device
Per chevron rayonny argent and gules, two equal-armed Celtic crosses and a ram's head cabossed counterchanged.
Fiona Finnech Device
Vert, a horse's head couped argent crined and in chief two increscents Or.
George Frank McKenzie Name and Device
Per bend azure and vert a bend raguly Or between two towers argent.
Grimarr {o,}rv{o,}nd Name

Gwen Allyn Name and Device
Per fess argent and vert two horses statant counterchanged.
Kara Bjornsdottir Device
Quarterly, Or semy of roses and purpure, a swan contourny within a border quarterly purpure and Or semy of roses purpure.
Keterlin von dem Drachen Device
Azure, on a chevron cotised between three suns in splendor Or, five mullets Azure.
Mountain Edge, Shire of Badge
(Fieldless) On a mountain couped Or, an acorn proper.
Mychael le Renard
change from Michel le Renard
Name, Change

Olivia Dougall Name

Thorkatla grafeld Name and Device
Per bend azure and argent, an Alphin salient counterchanged.

The following have been returned for further work:

Alis inghean Ruaidhri Device
Azure a pheonix and on a base Or in saltire an arrow argent flighted azure and a quill azure spined argent

The pheonix is unidentifiable as drawn, and the argent arrow on an Or ground violates RfS VIII.2.b.ii: "A charge must have good contrast with any charge placed wholly on it."

Cerdic Wlfraven Device
Vert a wolf statant to sinister Argent and in chief a sun in splendor Or.

This is in conflict with Nina Mirovna Korsakova (1995): "Vert, a fox passant contourny and in chief a compass star elongated to base argent." There is one CD for the change of tincture of the charge in chief. There is no CD between various types of canine. Similarly, there is no CD between statant and passant, as only the position of one leg has changed. Therefore this leaves only the differences between a sun and a multi-pointed mullet. However, precedent holds "There is not a CD between a compass star and a sun... [Taliesin de Morlet, 03/01, R-Caid]" In addition, precedent holds "[a mullet of four points elongated to base vs. a compass star] ...There is also no difference for the slight artistic variant in elongating the bottom point of a mullet. [Catherine Diana de Chambéry, 05/03, R-Atenveldt]. Therefore, there is only one CD for the change of tincture of the mullet/sun.

Duncan MacDuff Badge
Azure, a dance ermine between a hart's head cabossed and two escallops Or.

There are too many indentations in this depiction to warrant registration. Consider the precedent: "As a general rule, for a complex line of division to be sufficiently 'big and bold', along a fess line this most frequently means three 'bumps'; along a pale or bend line perhaps as many as five. [12a/93, p.17]"

Grimarr {o,}rv{o,}nd Device
Gyronny of six argent and gules on a roundel gyronny arrondy of six sable and argent a roundel gules.

This falls afoul of a clear precedent forbidding counterchanging a central roundel over a gyronny field:
[Per pale and per saltire gules and argent, on a roundel counterchanged a spider inverted and a bordure sable] No evidence was presented, and none was found, for counterchanging a central roundel over this field, or the similar gyronny field, in period armory. Such a design will not be acceptable without documentation: "In general, we would like to see documentation for any charge counterchanged over a multiply divided field, such as barry or gyronny" (LoAR 8/01). [Sabina le Sewester, 03/02, R-West]"

Mederei merc Taran Name

There are several problems with this name; firstly the preposition must be changed to merch for grammatical reasons, but as the submitter allows no changes, the name must be returned. Further, Mederei is only documented as a unique, legendary name. Lacking evidence that the name was used by a real person within period, it is not registerable.

Olivia Dougall Device
Per chevron inverted argent and purpure, a lit candle between two needs counterchanged

The field division is drawn too ambiguously for registration.

'This is not a pile, because it issues from the top corners of the shield. Nor is it chaussé, because it does not extend all the way to base. Nor is it a chief triangular, because it is much too deep. Nor is it a per chevron inverted field division, because it does not issue from the sides of the field. As a result, this must be returned. ' [Rickard of Gwyntarian, 10/01, R-Middle].

Thorkatla grafeld for House Skraeling Household Name

No evidence was presented to support this construction for a household name, nor were the elements documented to period.


1. Aleyne Edwinson Porte de l'Eau Device, New

Per bend sinister argent and gules, an Alan's head erased gules and a sun Or, and a bordure sable semy of winds argent

The submitter's name was registered in May 2003.

2. Ælfflæd Ælfgaresdohtor
primary name change from Caterina Giulia di Raffaello Strozzi
Three Mountains Name and Device, Change
(picture not yet available)

Gules, a hare sejant contourney or

The submitter's name was registered June 1993, her alternate name was registered in September 2002. The submitter wishes to switch her alternate and primary names. The submitter would like to release her old device if this device is accepted.

3. Caitlín ingen ui Dálaig Montengarde Name and Device, New

Argent, a sun sable and on a chief azure three frets argent

The submitter will not accept major changes, cares most about sound (KAHT-leen), desires a female name, does not want her name changed to be authentic, and will accept a holding name.

Caitlin can be found in Patrick Woulfe, Sloinnte Gaedheal is Gall: Irish Names and Surnames, page 208. Woulfe states that Caitlín is a variant of Caitrín and was the name of the virgin and martyr of Alexandria. He goes on to say that the name was brought to Europe by the Crusaders. E.G. Withycombe, Oxford Dictionary of Christian Names (s.n. Katharine, page 186-187) provides undated citations of the Irish form Caitlin being often used in England. She further states that Caitlin is decended from the Middle English name Catlin. Donnchadh Ó Corrain and Fidelma Maguire, Irish Names (page 45) state that the Irish forms Caitíona and Caitilín (also Caitlín) are derived from the Old French names Caterine and Cateline.

Dálaig can be found in Donnchadh Ó Corrain and Fidelma Maguire, Irish Names (s.n. Ragnall, page 154) dating Ragnall Ua Dalaig to 1161. Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, Index of Names in Irish Annals: Muirchertach/Muircheartach, dates Muircertach Ua Dálaigh to 1459 and Muirceartach mac Con Connacht Ui Dhálaigh to 1466. Copies of the annals documentation are included.

4. Chinua Temur Wealdsmere Badge, New

(Fieldless) Two arrow inverted in saltire, within a bordure gules

The submitter's name appears on the July 2004 An Tir Letter of Intent.

5. Dagmær in hvassa
change from Damaris de Sheldon

Name Change

The submitter will not accept major changes, cares most about language/culture (unspecified), desires a female name, does not want her name changed to be authentic, and will accept a holding name. Her current name was registered in June of 1995.

Dagmær can be found in the 14th century saga Hálfdanar saga Eysteinssonar, available at The text lists Dagmær as the wife of Hans. Copies of this documentation were not included.

in hvassa can be found in Geirr Bassi Haraldsson, The Old Norse Name (s.n. inn hvassi page 23). Geirr Bassi states that the epithet means "the sharp or keen." When a masculine epithet is used with a feminine name, it should be feminized according to the rules provided on page 19. For this epithet, the second -n of inn is dropped and the weak masculine ending -i is changed to -a.

6. Jak M'Kenye Aquaterra Name and Device, New

Sable on a bend argent two fishes niant gules between in chief, two swords in saltire and in base a dragons head couped contourney argent.

The submitter will not accept major changes, cares most about language/culture (late period Scots), desires a male name, wants his name changed to be authentic for late periods Scots, and will accept a holding name.

Jak is found in George F Black's The Surnames of Scotland (s.n. Jack). Black dates this name to 1453 and 1469.

M'Kenye is found in George F Black's The Surnames of Scotland (s.n. MacKenzie). Black dates this name to 1513.

7. Katerine Martel Adiantum Name and Device, New

Sable, a stag's head cabossed and in chief a crescent argent

The submitter will not accept major changes, cares most about language/culture (unspecified), desires a female name, wants her name to be changed to be authentic for unspecified, and will accept a holding name.

Katherine can be found in E.G. Withycombe, Oxford Dictionary of Christian Names (Katharine). Withycombe states that this name was brought to England by early Crusaders. She goes on to state that the Old French forms of the name were Caterine and Cateline and the Middle English forms were Katerine, Kateline, and Catline. Withycombe dates this spelling of the name to the 15th century.

Martel can be found in P.H. Reaney and R. M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames (s.n. Martel). Reaney and Wilson date Martel to 1086 and 1148. This name can also be found in Charles Bardsley, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames. Bardsley dates this spelling to 1273, and dates Martell to 1379. Copies of correspondence from Signora Francessa Testarossa dei Martini providing this information were included.

8. Katerine Martel Adiantum Badge, New

Argent, a stag's head cabossed and in chief a crescent sable.

9. Katerine Martel Adiantum Badge, New

(Fieldless) On a mullet of nine points a crescent azure and a paw print vert.

No blazon was provided with this form, Lions Blood has blazoned this device from the emblazon. The fieldless badge box was not checked; however, this could be fielded armory with an indented bordure as both the field and bordure would then have been argent.

10. Lora Lin of Dinas Bran Hartwood Name and Device, New

Argent, on a Laurel tree eradicated proper, a recorder in bend sinister argent all within a bordure sable.

The submitter will accept any changes, cares most about meaning (Lora Lin of the Castle of the Crow), desires a female name, wants her name changed to be authentic for Welsh 12th to 14th century and will accept a holding name.

Lora can be found in Aelfwyn aet Gyrum (Jodi McMaster) Feminine Given names from Kent, 1302-1363. This article dates the given name to 1349-1350. Copies of this documentation were provided.

Lin can be found in George F. Black, The Surnames of Scotland. (s.n. Lynne). This form is dated as a surname to 1468 where Patrick Lin or de Lyn was burgess of Edinburgh.

No documentation was provided for Dinas Bran.

11. Muriel Buchanan Aquaterra Name and Device, New

Per bend argent and azure, in bend sinister a cat sejant affronte sable and a rose argent slipped vert seeded sable

The submitter will not accept major changes, cares most about language/culture (Scots), desires a female name, wants her name changed to be authentic for Scots, and will accept a holding name.

Muriel is found in George F. Black, The Surnames of Scotland. (s.n. Achenburg) and dated to 1238.

Buchanan is found in George F. Black, The Surnames of Scotland. (s.n. Buchanan) and dated to 1270.

12. Skapti Þorinsson Madrone Device, New

Sable, an eagle striking contourny Or and a bordure erminois

The submitter's name was registered in March of 2003.

13. Skapti Þorinsson Madrone Badge, New

(Fieldless) Three eagles jambes conjoined in triskelion Or, each claw maintaining a sword sable.

The submitter's name was registered in March of 2003.

14. Stephen of Hunmanby
Name and Device, New

Gules, a cross fleury within an annulet Or

The submitter will not accept major changes, cares most about sound and language/culture, desires a male name, wants his name to be changed to be authentic for 12th to 13th century England, and will accept a holding name.

Stephen can be found in E.G. Withycombe, Oxford Dictionary of Christian Names. (s.n. Stephen ). The name is also found in George F. Black, The Surnames of Scotland. (s.n. Stephen). Support for the use of the "ph" can be found in Burrow and Turville-Petre, A Book of Middle English (The Peterborough Chronicle, page 76), appearing twice in the spelling Stephne. Copies of this documentation were provided.

Hunmanby is a village and manor in Yorkshire. This village can be dated to 1138 in Lucy Owston, Hunmanby East Yorkshire: A Story of Ten Centuries. Copies of this documentation were provided.

15. Stephen of Hunmanby
Badge, New

Gules, a cross fleury and a bordure Or

16. Tomas Alvarez Borealis Device, Resubmission

Per pale gules and sable, a domestic cat guardant rampant or, maintaining a rapier argent and in chief 2 reremice or

The submitter's name was registered in March 2004.The submitter's previous device, Per pale gules and sable, domestic cat guardant rampant Or, maintaining a rapier argent, was returned for multiple conflicts against cats rampant. The rapier was not adjudged to carry sufficient weight to clear these conflicts. The addition of the reremice addresses this issue.

17. Tristan Fiddler Wyewood Name and Device, New

Quarterly gules and argent, a fox sejant guardent sable and a bordure embattled counterchanged.

The submitter will accept any changes, cares most about language/culture (unspecified), desires a male name, does not want his name changed to be authentic, and will accept a holding name.

Tristan can be found in E.G. Withycombe, Oxford Dictionary of Christian Names. (s.n. Tristam). Withycombe states that the usual form in England was Tristam and dates this form to 1189. She also states that Tristan was found as a surname in France by the end of the 12th century.

Fiddler can be found in P.H. Reaney and R. M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames (s.n. Fidler). Reaney and Wilson date le ffithelere to 1285 and Fydeler to 1379.

18. Wilhelm der Krieger
Device, Change

Or, a dragon-headed raven close azure holding a ball gules in sinister claw.

The submitter's name was registered in October 1983.The submitter would like to retain his old device, Vert, a bend between two foxes heads erased argent, as a badge.

19. Wilhelm der Krieger
Badge, New

(Fieldless) A dragon-headed raven close sable holding a ball gules in sinister claw

The submitter's name was registered in October 1983.

20. Wyll Hauk
Badge, New

Per pale azure and vert, a jester's head per pale argent and OR bells counterchanged

The submitter's name was registered in October 1983. The face area of this hood is sable.

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